Remember when we first got videos on the internet and they all looked like this?
Art by H.J. Ford (1897) from THE SNOW QUEEN.
Neolithic amber bear, dated between 1700 B.C. and 650 B.C.
I'm not all that happy with Google these days, but this was amusing.
A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)
(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.
I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool. But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.
Bread Fraud was a huge thing, Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead. So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.
Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.
Bread is serious fucking business.
Man the bread fandom don’t put up with shit at all.
""A dude who can walk into any kitchen in the world and make bread is COMPLETELY RAW"
Reblogging this, because of yeasty reasons.
Here’s that lovely book. Buy it, it’ll make you happy.
Pro Tip: Instead of having feelings, try being dead inside. Everything is still horrible but you will not care at all.
What the healthcare system appears to be like so far.
my entire experience in high school
Musée Galliera de la Mode de la Ville de Paris
The Vatican looms large as we approach Borgo Santo Spirito, the central base for AltaRoma, Rome’s quasi-answer to a fashion “happening” where fashion, city and its culture intersect. The hotel where we’re put up happens to be on Via Venuto, the street made famous by Federico Fellini’s La Dolce Vita. In fact, history looms large everywhere we go because that’s Rome in a nutshell. Every nook and cranny in the city is a picture postcard. And you are never far from a monument or location that needs a detailed tour guide explanation.
Cinema, politics and religion are unavoidably set into the backdrop to the city and that can either be a hindrance or a benefit to the cause of AltaRoma. By the end of the three-day programme of events, you had to hand to it to the current president of AltaRoma Silvia Venturini Fendi – it’s a tall order to turn Rome into a style destination and a hub for young Italian fashion. A quick search about AltaRoma on Italian newspaper La Repubblica and the tag “controversy” comes up before the event has even fully got underway as the contentious issue of funding comes up. Rome, despite its fashion credentials as home to the illustrious houses of Fendi, Valentino and Gucci and its claim to home grown couturiers such as Roberto Capucci, still plays second fiddle to Milan as premier fashion capital where the money is.
Rome’s history though as the former centre of Italian haute couture is about to get a major spotlight at the forthcoming V&A’s The Glamour of Italian Fashion, which opens in April. Add to that, the ongoing discussion in Italy as to what young designers are coming through to the forefront as Camera della Moda continues to assess Milan’s waning status in amongst the fashion capitals, and my first time experience of AltaRoma is well timed. Oh, and I get to use another Rome-related reference for a post title.
Silvia Venturini Fendi’s involvement with AltaRoma has meant that in the last few years, it has undergone a transformation. In addition to showcasing the Roman ateliers that may not be household names outside of Italy, Rome is now home to Vogue Italia’s Who Is On Next? competition. We got a mix of the old, the new and the relationship between the history of the city with its current fashion oeuvre were constantly exploited to great effect.
On the new side of things, which the Italian fashion journalists were most eager to see, previous finalists and winners of Who is On Next? all presented their A/W 14-5 collections, adding a sort of new gen ready-to-wear angle to AltaRoma. Arthur Arbesser, winner of the last edition, is someone I met at the House of Peroni talk back in November. He eschewed Italian fashion tropes in favour of looking back to his time studying at Central Saint Martins in London by way of an intriguing clash between Joy Division and clerical robes. Plus fake astrakhan in red and earthy loden come up against transparent silk organza and gold glitter techno. There’s definitely something interesting to grasp here in Arbesser’s melting pot of Austrian background, London education and Milanese work environment.
Esme Vie designed by Julia Voitenko and Daria Golevko sent a love letter to Rome with its double faced satin ensembles in peony-inspired shades of red, white and pink, bejewelled with jewel rosettes. Maria Grazia Chiuri and Pier Paolo Piccioli’s work for Valentino has definitely struck a note with Italy’s younger generation. Prim with an edge also flourished at Rome-based label Greta Boldini, designed by Alexander Flagella and Michaela Musco. Contrasts between masculine tweeds and crystal embellished silks made a case for a return to Italian glamour as seen in Luchino Visconi’s film The Damned. Film influences were also evident at San Andres, designed by Andres Caballero, who looked to his native Mexican film legend Maria Felix as a muse for his marble print silks and 1950s silhouettes.
For a sportier leaning that certainly juxtaposed with Rome’s penchant for the grandiose, you had further Who’s On Next finalists from the last edition – Comeforbreakfast, by Antonio Romano and Francesco Alagna and Quattramani designed by Massimo Noli and Nicola Frau (Italian fashion young gens seem to love pairing up, no?) both flexed their “contemporary” casual wear muscles. Comeforbreakfast skewed urban and tough whilst Quattramani injected whimsy with a mouse print inspired by sculpture artist Katharina Fritsch. It’s not quite the complete sum of parts but it’s interesting to see Rome, so weighted by its history and tradition, become this ideas factory in fashion. When Milan’s schedule continues to be dominated by big names and houses, Rome swoops in as a veritable alternative.
I was definitely up for a few shows with frows filled with fur, surgery and jewels and I definitely got that at shows by Sarli Couture, Gattinoni, Raffaella Curiel, and Renato Balestra. If you want literal theme executed without a hint of irony – in Balestra’s case, he was inspired by “birds of paradise” – then ye will find joy in these rambunctious shows. Less joyful was Gattinoni, which took us out to outskirts of Rome to the unfinished spectacular EUR Centre Congress building designed by FUKSAS. The architecture easily overshadows the clothes but moreover Gattinoni’s president Stephen Dominella, decided to bring his own agenda in by having a raging rant at the end, declaring his desire to never show in Rome and openly lambasting AltaRoma. I’m told there’s an ulterior political agenda. If only I could get my head around the intrigues and corruption of Italian politics. Either way, it was an inappropriate and needlessly sour note that makes me thankful that at the very least, in the UK, politics and fashion stay within their realms.
Check out the sashaying here!
Politics might distract the task at hand but the monumental relics of Rome will always be a powerful trump card. A Shaded View on Fashion‘s 6th film festival played out inside Hadrian’s Temple. I participated in a panel talk about the relevance and evolution of fashion film, adding little contribution other than “Fashion film Is Good”. I loved that the line-up of films at the festival showcased fashion films that are mixing up genres and are less about models wafting around aimlessly and more about narrative or spoof. Like this film by Remi Hachache for Converse entitled “How to fix a bad tattoo.” The lack of brand presence is almost irrelevant when you’ve got comedy gold.
Down in the underground amongst the ruins of the Stadium of Dominitian, designer Ludovica Amati put on a multi-sensory spiritual performance “La Cura”. If you were to dance around Joshua Tree surrounded by dreamcatchers, Amati’s organza dresses and wafty tulle ensembles are just the ticket. The tableau of crystals and rose petals is accompanied by a singing performance by two “medicine women”. This cure is completed by a heady scent by Meo Fusciuini, which wafts through the ruins like incense in neighbouring Catholic churches.
The mega good guys of AltaRoma are undoubtedly A.I. Artisanal Intelligence. Curators Clara Tosi Pamphili and Alessio de’Navasques explored the relationship between costume and couture as we were transported to the legendary Sartorial Farani, a legendary costume workshop in Rome, which has made created costumes for the likes of Fellini and Pier Paolo Pasolini. Costumes from films like Barbarella, Casanova and Othello are on display alongside Sartorial Farani’s library of couture pieces by the likes of Dior, Chanel, Balmain and Schubert. There’s a three way dialogue here between costume and couture and set against this wealth of aesthetic material, a selected group of young designers also pipe up in this conversation. The past and the present collide in a way that feels unique to Rome. These cross-field “happenings” put AltaRoma in good stead, no matter what the powers that be has in store in the future.
This year's Valentine's Day.
I was the runner up. Again.
Waiting to hear about whether or not I got the job.
THERE ARE SPIDER FURRIES?!
a common theme
On the threads of the haute couture collections on the forum The Fashion Spot (my old internetz stomping ground), lines of criticism often run like this: “Ewww…. this is NOT couture!” and “This is not special enough to be shown at couture.” Everyone seems to have a very definite opinion of what constitutes haute couture. The subtext of their critique is that from the haute couture shows, they expect to see an elaborate spectacle and from the clothes, extravagant attire.
By definition, anything made by hand by houses, that have been given the appellation by the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture, and adheres to their rules (at least 15 employees in an atelier, presents twice a year comprising both daywear and eveningwear and provide clients with multiple fittings) is technically “haute couture.” Even within those constraints, nothing stipulates that haute couture must consist of ritzy ball gowns. That said, our own projected desires for haute couture is that we have come to expect that elusive element of magic. Those aforementioned TFS comments come from the perspective of a spectator rather than consumer. We want it not because we (and I’m assuming no billionaire’s wives/daughters or haute couture clients are reading my paltry blog) are going to be the ones buying the collections, but because for us haute couture exists as a barely-profitable spectacle to flog the rest of the trickled-on dream (the bags, the perfume, the make-up etc).
And yet, all this week, every critic and haute couture commentator has talked about the “modernization” of haute couture. They were attributing wearable, light and even casual qualities to many of the collections we saw. They are comments that come from the perspective of the couture clientale. As evidenced by the growing trend for houses to open doors to ateliers and market this their savoir faire, the focus on “les petites mains” has meant that skill is trumping spectacle and perhaps that will result in a loss of love from the fairweather fashion enthusiast, who might just looking at Style.com pictures only and passing judgement. For haute couture as an industry entity and as a collective craft, this week’s collections felt like a positive shift for those would-be clients. If the super rich echelons of the world are growing (rich-poor gap widening and all that) and they can afford it, then they may as well benefit from the expanded repertoire of that haute couture now offers.
Curiously, Chanel and Dior both seemed to be on the same page, at the forefront of this lighter and more dynamic mood in haute couture. The trainers were of course the big talking point. If there was another house, that had shown trainers at couture, trend spotters and analysis might have started to foam at the mouth. Yes, those £3k tweed-flecked trainers made by Massaro (you can’t actually buy them on their own unless you buy the accompanying look as well – so yeah, mega-mega bucks involved…) did slightly overshadow the show itself but the biggest takeaway point for me was the lightness in step as the models skipped down the stairs in a jolly manner and the way those clothes looked anything but stiff, even though they were results of hours and hours of embroidery, feather and beadwork by the skilled houses of Lesage and Lemaire. Club Chanel’s giant revolving wheel of a set of course gave us the BIGGEST show on a physical scale, along with a performance by Sebastian Tellier of La Ritournelle. Spectacle box duly ticked. It did make for poor pics on my part but also a legitimate excuse to go to the showroom to feel and touch it all up close. Cycling shorts, short jumpsuits and tennis dresses were all given the most decadent fairy dust treatment. The textures are mind bogglingly intricate when you get up close to them. Looking inside the Chanel couture closet, it’s like a girly box of all things nice (iridescence, pastels, feathers, sequins) has exploded. And who knew corsets – once a woman’s shackle – could in fact look so liberating when paired with the trainers, the bum bags and that recurring sporty cropped shape. Trust Karl to give us a dichotomy that works.
Maria Grazia Chiuri and Pierpaolo Piccioli of Valentino are like the school prefects of fashion. They haven’t really put a step wrong since their took over the maison and that’s down to a gradual but assured build up of a very recognisable language. The long sleeved, ankle-grazing gowns, the prim peter pan collars and the overall feeling of sweet femininity with an edge, encapsulated in their hit accessory collection, the Rockstud. Their ready to wear already blurs into the demi-couture realm and so their couture collection is almost like the ultimate cherry on their already pretty perfect cake – it allows Valentino’s Rome atelier to show off its skills but they don’t need to make a big statement or indeed put on a spectacle of a show. The clothes speak for themselves. In fact, where I was sitting, the runway was so narrow that you could audibly hear the physical rustle of chiffon and lace trailing the floor. With the clothes in such close proximity, it also made you gasp at the level of technical perfection of everything. With Chiuri and Piccioli inspired by the animal kingdom and the theatricality Rome Opera House, there was a danger of falling too far into a thematic vortex. They avoided that because a) everything was executed so immaculately and b) had the sense to balance out tulle ballet frocks embroidered with snakes, peacock and swans (a refined version of Marjan Pejoski’s Bjork swan frock, no?) and floor length feats of embroidery with jungle scenes and depictions of Adam and Eve with simpler and more pared back pieces such as the monastic-looking column dresses in forest tones. Even a lion’s head staring back at you from a double faced cashmere cape didn’t detract from the seamlessly smooth applique double technique used. And yet, all this faultlessness and perfection didn’t come off cold either. It was just gob-smackingly impressive.
Another way of looking at the future of couture is by looking back, which Maison Martin Margiela has done so well with its Artisinale line. This season, you could really feel the past as this estate sale trawl of a collection gathered up pieces from collections – Frank Lloyd Wright interior fabrics, Sailor Jerry tattoo embroideries, a mass of jewellery and trinkets – and remade, repurposed and revived them into a brilliant feat of upcycling. Where Artisinal has sometimes felt overly crafty in the past, in the last few seasons, it’s really felt like is a wearable and desirable collectability about the pieces. MMM even said this was a “collector’s collection” in the press release. I especially loved the use of interiors fabrics and well-worn blankets that come with their own stories and tales and the way they have been re-appropriated in the context of dramatic opera coats and snazzy trouser suits. Cutting, pasting and collaging the past in the way that MMM do seems to add a weight to the conversation about preserving couture as an industry. Instead of freeze framing on past glories, they’re dissecting and breathing new life into them.
Two houses have also been given a new lease of life with new creative directors. I was mega excited about Marco Zanini’s debut at Schiaparelli as I was such a fan of what he did at Rochas. The idea of this Schiap fan boy (see the extent of Zanini’s love of Schiap in this piece by Alex Fury for the Independent) being let loose at Schiaparelli, a house that has been slated for a comeback for years now. The anticipation is now over and we can see that this collection is only the mere beginning of merging his own sense of whimsy with Schiaparelli’s rich archives. I do think the collection was more archival referencing than Zanini but who could blame him for being so giddy over paying homage to his heroine. There were real moments of loveliness such as the bouillonné bubble stitched polka dot dress, the frothy mint green tulle skirt and the satin opera coat worn with casual insouciance. Stephen Jones and Eugene Souleiman did an amazing job in giving this eclectic cast of characters their own identity. The collage of Wes Anderson film soundtracks at the show is more than a hint of the offbeat interpretation of elegance to come from Zanini.
Hussein Chalayan’s collaboration with Vionnet’s demi couture line (the pieces are created in ready-made sizes and then adjusted accordingly to the client) was also another new addition to the schedule. In contrast, Chalayan was eager not to turn to Vionnet’s much-referenced archives. The bias cutting and the plissé are no longer exclusive to the house so instead, Chalayan looked to bring something unexpected into the mix. In a preview, he showed us moodboards of industrial buildings, electrical wires and a palette of gritty street-led colours. Chalayan is adept at elevating the mundane. He does it exceedingly well in his own work. For Vionnet though, there was more of a push n’ pull between the language of Vionnet and his own interests. The opening organza dresses with laser cut out concentric circles layered up were incredible when in motion as they floated over the body. Sunray pleats coated in a fibrous texture paired with red coral-esque beading flowed well. I liked that both Chalayan and creative director Goga Ashkenazi both feel that embellishment and elaborate embroideries aren’t the only ways of expressing haute couture. However it wasn’t 100% worked out in execution but it seems Chalayan had only been given a short period of time to turn around a collection. Nonetheless it’s Chalayan. Even his slightly wobbly moments demand respect.
One Night Only, Giorgio Armani ‘s global “happenings” came to Paris and coincided with the Privé show, and this time was digitally curated by film maker Loic Prigent. Part of the experience was the Eccentrico exhibition – a retrospective of Privé’s most spectacular pieces, where you can get to grips with big shoulders and big embellishment. Armani is someone else, who commands your respect, not necessarily for everything he is doing currently but because his contribution to the industry is undoubtedly great. I’m not entirely sure what this specific Privé collection adds to the bigger existential question of haute couture, but I did enjoy the nomadic midnight blue jaunt through pyjama silks, lace and tulle with an Erté-esque elegance. All very House of Eliot when Evie and Bea do their blue collection.
I didn’t make it to the Giambattista Valli show but in the showroom, you kinda get why frows of super rich leggy things love his adorned frocks, heavy silk cloques and voluminously sculpted skirts that were ruched up into mini form. It is couture as you sort of know it in that ultra embellished way but sprightlier than its predecessors.
There are elements about haute couture which you hope will remain a forever constant and Roger Vivier’s Rendez-Vous line (shoes available in one of each size only) is exactly that. It’s a headonistic and defiantly decadent affair where Bruno Frisoni turns one of the rooms above the Roger Vivier store into his playground and immerses us into a fantasy shoe land. This time, it was a Central Asian-tinged disco night club, giving Frisoni the opportunity to revive Vivier’s 1954 “boule” heel. Frisoni was keen to assert that Vivier was the first to create this ball shaped heel and so he takes ownership of it here in these bijoux styles. I especially liked the contrast of the floral beaded chelsea boots and the unexpected disco ball heel.
I have just arrived in Rome and I turned on the TV to see Jean Paul Gaultier‘s haute couture collection being featured on the news. For the audience at large, especially in France, Gaultier is still king. Again, he’s a great that commands respect. I will forever be seeking out Gaultier vintage pieces and wearing them with pride. That said, his butterfly/carnival/showgirl hybrids complete with a tease of a walk from Dita von Teese was as another journalist noted, “as camp as Christmas” and that’s not always a good thing. The Gaultier exhibition opening both in Paris and in the Barbican in London this forthcoming spring will shed greater light on why the l’enfant terrible of fashion is a hero. This collection though just doesn’t do him justice.
I went to Ulyana Sergeenko’s show for the first time. It was definitely a theatrical trip and a half as Sergeenko imagined a train journey where her heroine stopped off at various places along the Trans-Siberian rail route. The theatrical and costume elements of the collection are part of the schtick (which is why whenever I see her in person, she always looks like a black and white film still) and there’s definitely room for that. Especially the people that like their couture given to them as a theme-y “dream” as it were.
Charlie le Mindu is back to his extreme wiggy best. His show was a definite respite from all the frocks and salons of the week as one night in a modern car showroom, his cyber/space punks vamped their way around a room in painstakingly created phosphorescent hair pieces. Le Mindu took months and months to achieve the right colour so that they would glow in both U.V. light and daylight and in real life, they were astoundingly neon. Any collection reminiscent of Cyber Dog, the trance attire store in Camden, gets a thumbs up from me.
Winner of most Insta-friendly show goes to Viktor & Rolf. Sure, the whole thing was basically an exercise to promote their new perfume Bon Bon but a troupe of ballet dancers from the Dutch Ballet Company in uniformly latex dresses, going en pointe across a room, with a cloud of crimped hair partially obscuring their faces invites a visceral reaction, be it love or hate. On my vid, it got 208 comments that ranged from amazement to horror. They did look eerie as their expressions were blank under the wispy mass of hair created again by Eugene Souleiman. But the sight of ballet dancers en pointe and dancing as though they were floating in air is always going to be arresting. Viktor Horsting and Rolf Snoeren wanted them to look “elevated” and so up in the air they went on latex covered ballet shoes, no less. It was also a wonder to see what the duo did with latex, a material that doesn’t really feature in haute couture. They used it to create second skin dresses where you didn’t know where flesh and garment began and ended. In shades of pink, flesh and mauve, I got Deborah Turbeville’s Bathhouse vibes from them. The hand painted bows, corset detailing and tattoos revisit Viktor & Rolf’s past theme of surreal trompe l’oeil. Despite the ulterior commercial motive, Viktor & Rolf contributed food for though to the idea of haute couture as spectacle for the general public. The show definitely captured people’s eyeballs. But the clothes still captured the imagination as well without resorting to haute couture tropes and cliches. It was a fitting combination to finish Paris Couture with.
Lady Amherst’s Pheasant
Sometimes I just don’t know you nature.
Welcome to America
Because I’m Hatty
We had to join in on the fun. Love you Pharrell.
Yesterday, I started to feel weird. My chest felt tight and my heart seemed like it was racing. I...
So this happened